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The global system appears to be entering an era much like the early Cold War period, but in a geopolitical situation in which Russia appears to be even more unstable than the former Soviet empire. The Russian Federation now fears the defection of its major allies and has been attempting to 

Ukraine: A New Plan
Ukraine: A New Plan
(Summer 2017)

Pandemic Pressure: The Coronavirus Is Antagonizing America’s Relationships (June 2020)

China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea, have hoped to counter U.S. military pressures and economic sanctions in an effort to overstretch U.S. political-military and financial capabilities across the world through both symmetrical and asymmetrical military measures and actions. It is crucial to seek out new diplomatic options to prevent a new arms race, if not a major-power war.

Hall Gardner

Professor Gardner has written several articles discussing a wide range of topics, such as Eastern European tensions, NATO, the European Union, and more in both English and French. Discover more of his works below.

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Biden : One Year After – By Professor Hall GARDNER

Toward a Resolution of the Cyprus Dispute and the Euro Crisis (Jan 2012)

EU ISS: Toward a New Euro-Atlantic Security Framework (Jan 2012)


A Dangerous Transition in the Greater Middle East (Dec 2011)


Towards a Euro-Atlantic Confederation (Mar 2011)


Toward a New Strategic Vision for the Euro-Atlantic (Nov 2010)


War and the Media Paradox (2009)

Toward “Regional Security Communities”: NATO, the UN, and the 1948 Vandenberg Resolution (March 2, 2007)

World Hegemony and its Aftermath (Feb 2005)


From the Egyptian Crisis of 1882 to Iraq of 2003 (Feb 2005)

Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers? (2003)

Labor of the New American Hercules: Transatlantic Relations in the Wake of the War with Iraq (Sep 2003)


Hybrid Warfare: Iranian and Russian Versions of "Little Green Men" and Contemporary Conflict (Dec 2015)


Toward a Geo-Economic Resolution of the Euro Crisis (Nov 2011)

China and International Relations in the New Millennium (Nov 2000)

Pre-WWI Europe as the Global System: Post-WWII Europe Within the Global System: Past, Present and Future Dilemmas of European Security and Identity (1992)

Rousseau on International Relations (1992)

Stealthy Mission of Appeasement--for Naught : China... (Dec 1989)

Far From Beijing, the Students Stand Up (May 1989)

A Troubled China Needs Democracy (April 1989)

History Suggests US and Europe Need A More Equal Partnership (2002)

A History of International Relations Theory (1998)

The Virilio Reader (2004)

Making Globalization Good: The Moral Challenges of Global Capitalism (2003)


The Concept of "Interest" (2006)

Those Stumbling Blocks to Recognising Vietnam Don't Have to Trip Us Now (March 1989)

Reducing the risks of war between the major powers 

Beyond the Interwar Analogy


The G-7 Summit: Sovereigntism vs. Internationalism (September 2019)


The Biarritz G-7 summit began with an apocalyptic warning from its host, French President Emmanuel Macron, who exclaimed “Our house is burning. Literally.” Macron then set an emergency agenda for the G-7 summit after castigating Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro for not safeguarding the Amazon rainforest – “the lungs which produces 20% of our planet’s oxygen” in Macron’s words...

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In the Name of "America First": The Risks of America's New Nationalism (February 8, 2018)


Despite the self-congratulatory tone of both his Davos Speech and State of the Union Address, President Trump has not yet obtained the confidence of the leaderships of major US allies or their populations. Nor has Trump been able to point the way to the establishment of more positive diplomatic relations with American rivals that could guarantee global peace...

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From World War I, World War II to World War III (2016-2017)

This essay provides a comparative historical analysis of geo-strategic and diplomatic causes behind international rivalries and alliance-formation during the Cold War (1946-1990) and Post-Cold War (1990-now), by examining the rising contrasts between the same key Powers through significant analogies (regional rivalries, hegemony, encirclement, alliance- formations and cyclical threats of devastating world wars) to...

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A Critical Response to NATO Rethink, Realign, React (June 23, 2016)


This note critiques policy recommendations proposed by NATO Rethink, Realign, React, a report produced by the Institute for Eastern Studies. The note, based on a discussion held at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, argues that engaging in a much tougher NATO stance toward Moscow, as proposed by the NATO Rethink, Realign, React report, will cause a greater escalation in...

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Crimea: When, and If, the Dust Settles (April 11, 2014)

In an effort to carve out a new form of Russian Monroe Doctrine in the north of the Black Sea and Russian Caucasus, President Putin consequently appeared to be using power-based strategic leveraging with a tacit threat to assert Russian interests in Transnistria, if not in the eastern Ukraine as well, if these two issues cannot... 

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Russia and Ukraine: The "Reset" That Was Never "Reset" (April 3, 2014)


The furtive Russian military intervention into the Crimea today is a direct reaction to the uncoordinated “triple expansion” of NATO, the European Union plus American/European defense and political economic interests and military infrastructure into the so-called Russian ‘near abroad’. This uncoordinated triple expansion has been countered by Russian efforts to check both NATO and...

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Toward a Neo-Jaurès Strategy: NATO - Russia Relations (Oct 6, 2016)


Critique of the « Open » NATO Enlargement
Two decades ago, prominent American foreign policy experts, former Senators, retired military officers, diplomats and academicians all forewarned that NATO enlargement would eventually provoke a Russian backlash. Ironically, both George Kennan and Paul Nitze, who were largely responsible for the policy of containment that sought to check Soviet and Communist expansionism, were both against NATO enlargement.

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